История / Видео / 13 февраль 2019

The Ubyghs: the most military hillmen of Caucasus

The Ubyghs: the most military hillmen of Caucasus
Ubyghs were one of the most mysterious and militant nations of South Caucasus. their history and ended very suddenly: they didn’t listen to commands of the Russian empire and… disappeared.
During XIX century Ubyghs had control of black sea coast in the Caucasus – between rivers Shahe and Hosta (now big Sochi). Horticulture and fishing were their main activities. But barter trade also had a great impact on their lives. Turkish had one of the main positions at the barter trade with Caucasus. They traded captured prisoners to useful metals to manufacture tools and weapons, firearms, and if needed: food and closes. In XIX century murids, brought by emissaries of Shamil’, became popular between Ubyghs. It worse saying that Ubyghs had one of the most organized military forces. The attempt of a storm of Navaginsk’s strengthening at the delta of river Sochi was one of the most global operations of Ubyghs’ military forces.

History of this strengthen built on Ubyghs’s land is following: in April 1836 Sibirskuy’s general unit landed in the mouse of river Sochi and after a short fight, took control of the land. Fort had the form of incorrect quadrilateral and garrison of eight officers and 300 low ranked fighters. Since spring in 1840 Navaginsk’s fort was often under attacks from hillman. In the night of 28th September 1840 unit of hillman suddenly attacked the fort. By using hooks and ladders hillman get a chance to go inside of the fort, but after a fight, they were thrown out by units of the garrison. In the fight captain Pogyrskiy and lieutenant Yakolev were killed. In response to the threat of capturing fort - general Anrepa’s unit was sent to help from the strengthening of holy spirit, but it took 3 days to come to Navaginsk’s fort. Defeat at the Navaginsk’s fort and failure at the takeover of Abin’s strengthen stopped hillman's’ attacks in 1840. But till the end of the war on south Caucasus Ubyghs didn’t stop to try to attack their neighbors and communication of Russian army.

The desperate situation when the Caucasus war and ended in 1864 started one of the hardest and shattering events – masses of people were migrating to Turkey. This happened because of many reasons from outside and from inside. Chief of general stuff in Caucasus army said: the task of Caucasus’ army is going to end soon. Hillman are trapped in a small area next to the sea and when enemies going to come closer. Not all hillman going to agree to leaves are beautiful and green motherland and migrate to the steppe. But we can make some humility by giving them another way - migrating to turkey.” All Circassians had to make difficult choice migrating to foothills or turkey. Moving to the plain territory meant losing so familiar from childhood lifestyle and in this case, they will need to stop their attack system capturing people and trading slaves. To pay taxes also was not a very popular idea between Circassians.

Colonization and neighborhood with Kazaks, who started to live in South Caucasus were unacceptable. Also, the possibility of military recruitment didn’t made situation better. Even that fact that governments were giving guaranty that Kazaks and Circassians will not be taken in military forces, rumors were not stopping. Russia after Crimea’s war lost control of building and military fleet on coast of the Black Sea, so seaboard was open for contraband and attack from the enemy.

Resettlement of Ubyghs was happening actually really fast and organized, faster than with other Circassians’ tribes. And there is the result of it: after 3 weeks after official obedience at the end of 1864, on the Southern hillside between rivers Shahe-Hosta, Ubyghs moved to Turkey. Only some families left on Southern Caucasus. Of course, Ubghs also faced all difficulties of migrating: hungriness, sickness in special camps for migrants, arbitrary of Turkish officers, who were selling Circassians’ women. The quantity of Ubyghs who left their motherland is from 50 thousand to 70 thousand people. Ubyghs spread in a big part of near East from Syria till Maramar sea and Balkan. With time they started to lose their language and their differences from other cultures. In the modern world, we don’t have many historical materials from the nation, who hadn’t their writings and bigger part of material what is found are from the times of Caucasus war.
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